Plant Sci. The Inflorescence is with branched central axis. 1044 pp. ADVERTISEMENTS: h. Cupule: These bracts grow together at the base of flower in the form of a cup and later surround the fruit, e.g., hazel, Corylus sp. Variability of Phragmites australis (Cav) ex Trin ex Steudal in relation to the environment. Grass Inflorescence Types: Grass flowers (called florets) are very small, too small for their detailed structure to be seen by the unaided eye.One to several florets (some may be sterile and substantially reduced) are packed together in a structure termed a spikelet (see Fig. A flower that is not part of an inflorescence is called a solitary flower and its stalk is also referred to as a peduncle. Nadgauda R.S., V.A.Parasharami & A.F.Mascarenhas, 1990. Eriophorum russeolum is known from adjacent areas of Ontario and Wisconsin, and likely will be found in the Upper Peninsula. Pl. Both the male and female inflorescence meristems of maize (tassel and ear, respectively) produce spikelet meristems, determinate branches that produce two glumes and two florets before undergoing sexual specialization ( 2 ). As in the wild-type inflorescence, development of the terminal spikelet of the mos1 inflorescence was more advanced than that of lateral branches ( Fig. (e) Longitudinal section of a spikelet from a boot-stage inflorescence of Setaria viridis A10 accession, stained with toluidine blue O. coconut. Development of detached wheat spikelets in culture. & R.I.Greyson, 1985. (5) Spikelet differentiation begins at the tip of the inflorescence and later occurs at the ends of the individual panicle branches. The lowermost, called glumes, are usually two in number, and they enclose some or all of the other scales.… Plant Sci. 15: 645–649. Organic growth factor requirements for tobacco tissue cultures. b)Pedicle: It is the stalk of the individual flowers. Hris H.H., J.F.Doebley, R.M.Guzman & B.Pazy, 1979. Furthermore, what is solitary inflorescence? Unisexual maize plants and their bearing on sex differentiation in other plants and animals. The inflorescence structure is a key determinant of yield in crops. Trop. This is a type of spike in which each flower is borne in the axil of a persistent membranous bract as found in the inflorescence of hop’ (Humulus lupulus). Heslop-Harrison Y. In the compound spadix, the main axis is branched and each branch bears sessile flowers. The vascular pattern of festucoid grass axes, with particular reference to nodal plexi. Microsporogenesis and gametophyte maturation in cultured tassels of Zea mays. Phytoliths are plant-produced micro silica bodies which can, in some cases, have a diagnostic morphology that can be distinguished among taxa; in particular, phytoliths in the Poaceae family can have taxonomic value in archaeological contexts and natural sediments (Twiss et al., 1969; Wang and Lu, 1993; Piperno, 2006). volume 81, pages121–129(1995)Cite this article. Science 157: 325–326. p. 117–137. In maize, the influence of hormones on sexuality has been demonstrated. 9: 107–113. Synthesis of the major storage protein, hordein, in barley. Literature review and numerical taxonomy of Eragrostis tef (t'ef). & R. Appels, 1992. Hayman, D.L., 1992. & R.I.Greyson, 1984. The S-Z incompatibility system. Bot. Trione E.J. Plant Cell Reports 11: 248–252. Bjork, S., 1967. The relative efficiency of cytokinins in the development of normal spikelets on cultured tassels of Zea mays. the formation of “supernumerary spikelet/spike branching” trait and the study of peculiarities of the devel-opment of inflorescences of nonstandard branched wheat forms made it possible to demonstrate a genetic nature of hereditary variation of this trait. Gaz. Evol. Watson, L. & M.J. Dallwitz, 1992. Plant, Cell, Tissue and Organ Cult. 60: 75–80. Entire inflorescence is covered by a brightly coloured or hard bract called a spathe. p. 225–265. 2.80I) of Betulaceae etc. 70: 313–318. 390 pp. These meristems are defined by their position and their products. (Fig. D, Inflorescence enclosed terminal spikelet stage showing the terminal spikelet (1) and five branches. Aust. p. 138–155. Flowering glumes are associated with locusta and spikelet inflorescence.Flowering glumes are the lower and stouter of the two glumes immediately enclosing the floret. In: G.P. 4A), which is the basic unit of the flower or seed head (termed an inflorescence; see also Page v). 7: 347–391. Each branch ... Usually female flowers are found towards the base and male flowers are found at the apex. p. 305–307. 68: 239–247. Janzen D.H., 1976. Techniques of inflorescence and spikelet culture have been used for three major cereals. Some flowers are sessile and do not have a stalk, they are directly attached to the peduncle. Arrows point to the histologically indistinct AZ. Plant Physiol. Physiol. A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. These conserved expression patterns may suggest a largely similar mode of action for these key regulatory genes in the two grass species. Inflorescences panicles with the main branches densely covered with spikelets or short, condensed side branches. For wheat and barley the influence of supplying carbohydrate and nitrogen on grain content has been explored. The inflorescence of Brachypodium was composed of two or three lateral spikelets and a terminal spikelet (Fig. Replication of DNA during barley endosperm development. The whole inflorescence is enclosed by one thick boat-shaped spathe. 17: 161–170. Part of Springer Nature. An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches. Amer. Based on phytolith taxonomy and morphology, phytolith analysis has been proven to be a reliable tool in understanding the taxonomy and evolution of plants (Prychid et al., 2003; Rudall e… Ann. Many current classifications for the family use models of spikelet structure established by Eiten (1976); yet Eiten provides only a general typology of the ultimate inflorescence units found throughout the family and does not present evidence for her conclusions other than a few verbal descriptions of mature anatomy and illustrations of dissections of mature spikelets. Spikelets dot-shaped. Regulation of flower development in cultured ears of maize (Zea mays L.). Genetics 19: 552–567. Coarse grasses found in wet habitats. MORE SPIKELETS1 is required for spikelet fate in the inflorescence of Brachypodium. Lancaster. Plant. Cambridge University Press. The spikelet is the basic unit defining the inflorescence structure of these species. Development of maize caryopses resulting from in vitro pollination. 2.80H) of Poaceae (Cramineae) etc. 390 pp. The spikelet meristem (SM) plays a central role during the development of grass inflorescence. Stapleton A.E. Euphytica 48: 225–231. Examples: Present in the plants of family Araceae (arums), Musaceae, Palmaceae. a, Awn; am, axillary meristem; b, branch; gl, glume; l, lemma; pls, primary lateral spikelet; ts, terminal spikelet. Chapman (Ed). Agric. TaSPL13 regulates inflorescence architecture and development in transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) ... compared with the controls that had only 6 florets per spikelet. 296 pp. Aust. Morphologically, it is the modified part of the shoot of seed plants where flowers are formed. Sci. 5: 81–87. Phosphorylation of pollen proteins in relation to self-incompatibility in rye (Secale cereale L.). Examples of secondary inflorescences are “a panicle of spikelets,” “a corymb of heads,” or “a raceme of spikes.” Although in vitro seed setting is less efficient than in vivo the resulting grains, from optimal treatments, are in almost all respects normal or nearly so. Arrangement of flowers on the floral axis is Inflorescence Phyllotaxy Placentation Corymb Answer: 1 Q2. Plant, Cell, Tissue and Organ Cult. Spikelets are indeterminate and give rise to a variable number of florets. The second caryopsis (floret) in the spikelet at the third spikelet position on a spike would be named S3C2. 42: 778–784. Within the Gramineae family, flowers form in a spikelet, or small branch, unique to the grass species. secondary bracts usually found in the interior of an inflorescence. Our latest episode for parents features the topic of empathy. Science 203: 186–188. Inflorescence structure directly affects the yield of grain crops. 5: 119–128. Examples: Caesalpinia (peacock flower), Iberis amara (candytuft) Royal Botanic Gardens. Gegenbach B.G. Precocious flowering and seeding behaviour in tissue cultured bamboos. - 185.22.108.50. Van Zee Tot Land. Physiol. Clayton, W.D., 1990. 41: 1233–1258. 18: 100–127. The spikelet is a unique structure of inflorescence in grasses that generates one to many flowers depending on its determinate or indeterminate meristem activity. 360 pp. Unisexual flower, spikelet, and inflorescence development in monoecious/dioecious BOUTELOUA DIMORPHA (Poaceae, Chloridoideae) 1 ... We found the developmental pathway for staminate fl owers in B. dimorpha to be distinct from that described in the other three subfamilies, showing gynoecial arrest occurs at a different stage with possible loss of some cellular contents. J. Bot. & R.I.Greyson, 1982. Evans L.T., J.Bingham & M.A.Roskams, 1972. Plant Physiol. Planta 161: 172–177. 7: 67–75. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying spikelet development and evolution are attractive to both … 2B; Table I).Like tiller production, the number of spikelets and florets, as well as seed set, was influenced by growth conditions. Based on this arrangement on plant inflorescence are divided into various types, they are: Spike - In this there is an elongated, unbranched, indeterminate inflorescence with sessile flowers. ... Norwich NR4 7UH, United Kingdom. Giese H., B.Anderson & H.Doll, 1983. 33: 413–424. Selection of T cytoplasm maize callus cultures resistance to Helminthosporium maydis race T pathotoxin. Each floret is typically embraced by an additional pair of minute chaffy bracts called the lemma and the palea. J. Bot. Plant. Protein and carbohydrate accumulation in normal and high-lysine barley in spike culture. Inflorescence Shaped Like the Letter Y (and sometimes with extra arms) 7-A. Nature 334: 335–336. Here, we provide a detailed description … Isozyme variation and correspondence with unusual infra red reflectant patterns in Phragmites australis (Poaceae). van der Toorn, J., 1972. Inflorescence is a sequence in which flowers are arranged on the plant or on their stem. Bommineni V.R. Academic Press. In vitro normal and variant development of t'ef (Eragrostis tef) spikelets. A pair of inflorescence bracts called glumes is present at the base. & R.I.Greyson, 1990b. Hitch P.A. J. Grass Evolution and Domestication. Econ. Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout. In vitro culture of immature tassels of an inbred field variety of Zea mays or Oh 43. Cambridge University Press. Spikelets are indeterminate and give rise to a variable number of florets. Most of the world's food supply is derived from cereal grains that are borne in a unique structure called the spikelet, the fundamental unit of inflorescence architecture in all grasses. Spikelets are arranged into inflorescences of variable size and form: from small, tight heads in many genera to panicles, the usual form of the inflorescence; panicles as long as one metre or more can be found in…, …inflorescence of grasses is the spikelet, a small structure consisting of a short axis, the rachilla, to which are attached chaffy, two-ranked, closely overlapping scales. 48b Inflorescence spike-like, but rachis not thickened to prominence over spikelets, rather more typically narrow and partly or completely hidden by spikelets [] 49a (Each spikelet comprising one to three florets, but only one fertile (the others much reduced in size) [49b Inflorescence an elongate spike of many-flowered spikelets arranged singly up, and pressed against, the culm (See Fig. The spikelet is a short branch, bearing florets; a spikelet consists of two glumes and 2–5 florets arranged along a spikelet rachilla. Example: Amorphophallus, Colocasia, Phoenix, Cocos. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The inflorescence morphology particularly the spikelet was examined in detail and found to be highly variable. 122 pp. Pareddy D.R. Culture of whole barley spikes stimulates high frequencies of pollen calluses in individual anthers. The reproductive organs in the Poaceae (grasses) family are the basic units determining grain yield in cereal crops. & H.Giese, 1984. Paspalum conjugatum (Thin delicate Y. Spikelets with long hairs. 122 pp. C.A.B.I. Chapman (Ed). It has an inflorescence consisting of a single terminal spikelet, as in E. vaginatum, but with stems arising from elongate, creeping rhizomes, rather than being densely cespitose. 67: 317–320. Regulatory network and genetic interactions established by OsMADS34 in rice inflorescence and spikelet morphogenesis Qingcai Meng. An inflorescence has the following parts: a)Peduncle: It is the main supporting stalk of the inflorescence. & R.I.Greyson, 1985. 389 pp. OsMADS34 is a SEPALLATA ‐like gene which carries a critical function in both inflorescence and spikelet development. For wheat and barley the influence of supplying carbohydrate and nitrogen on grain content has been explored. Answered By . Lett. Cambridge University Press. We have discovered a gene in maize, indeterminate floral … A spikelet, in botany, describes the typical arrangement of grass flowers.. Each spikelet has one or more florets. & S.A. Renvoize, 1986. Cambridge University Press. Folia Limnol. To do this, however, cells destined to become SM must first attain the SM identity. Chapman (Ed). Spikelet or Locusta: A spikelet is the ultimate component of a type of inflores­cence found in the grasses (Gramineae) and the sedges (Cyperceae). Grass Evolution and Domestication. Racemose Inflorescence: In this type of inflorescence the main axis does not end in a flower, but it … They form small dry membranous bract found in inflorescences of Gramineae and Cyperaceae. The inflorescence of Brachypodium was composed of two or three lateral spikelets and a terminal spikelet (Fig. Bars = 100 µm. 74: 883–890. The growth patterns and number of spikelets, furthermore, define inflorescence architecture and yield. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) produces an inflorescence with a unique architecture among crops, forming single spikelets on opposite sides of a central rachis in an alternating phyllotaxy and a terminal spikelet at the apex, with each spikelet producing multiple florets. Wilson H.M., 1977. Within New England, shiny wedgescale is found in Connecticut, Massachusetts, Phode Island and Vermont, but it is rare and has shown a marked decline in the number of known populations. Scand. Essay # 2. the stalk holding a solitary flower or supporting the inflorescence. The spikelet. Reprod. Aust. In vitro development of t'ef (Eragrostis tef) seeds within detached spikelets. There are three kinds of scales. 10: 99–108. The basic unit of the inflorescence is called a spikelet typically consisting of a basal pair of minute sterile bracts called glumes and one or more distichously arranged distal florets on an often zigzag extension of the spikelet axis called the rachilla. Meristems are plant cells or tissues that have the capacity to produce new organs – in this case spikelets. White P.R., 1943. Tefera H. & G.P.Chapman, 1992. 6. Effect of gibberellic acid and indole 3-acetic acid on growth and differentiation of cultured ear inflorescences of maize (Zea mays L.). Clayton, W.D. Fertilisation and seed production with pollen from in vitro-cultured maize tassels. Spikelets round, disk shaped or coin-shaped. The single-spikelet inflorescence 1/2" tall) Category 7. Richards, A.J., 1990. Bar = 5 mm. In Brachypodium (Brachypodium distachyon), the inflorescence is an unbranched spike with a terminal spikelet and a limited number of lateral spikelets. The pattern of grain set within ears of wheat. Bommineni V.R., 1990. & K.R.Shivana, 1977. The Jacques Cattell Press. Techniques of inflorescence and spikelet culture have been used for three major cereals. Tefera H., S.Ketema & T.Tesemma, 1990. Sawgrass inflorescences have clusters of spikelets [primary lateral inflorescence branches of Bruhl (1995)] distributed in the axils of bracts along an elongated inflorescence (Fig. Influence of photoperiod on frequency of sexual embryo sacs in facultative apomictic buffel grass. & B.I.Greyson, 1987. 10: 227–236. Synthesis of salt-soluble proteins in barley. H.M.S.O. 2B; Table I).Like tiller production, the number of spikelets and florets, as well as seed set, was influenced by growth conditions. Grass inflorescence and spikelet culture: An appraisal. E.g. 9: 233–238. the spikelet meristem, which produces 1–40 florets (depending on the species) and a series of modified leaves called bracts (Goto et al., 2001; McSteen et al., 2000; Schmidt and Ambrose, 1998). In all of their reconstructions the authors show that the ancestor of the panicoid grasses had a partially or fully homogenized, lax inflorescence with a terminal spikelet. Costanza S.H., J.M.J.deWet & J.R.Harlan, 1979. Pareddy D.R., R.I.Greyson & D.B.Walden, 1987. PubMed Google Scholar, Chapman, G.P. In maize, the influence of hormones on sexuality has been demonstrated. The implications of reproductive versatility for the structure of grass populations. The inflorescences of grass species have a unique type of secondary meristem, i.e. Corke H. & D.Atsmon, 1988. Physiol. Chapman (Ed). Syst. Example:members of Araceae, Musaceae and Palmaceae. & V.O.Stockwell, 1989. Variability, heritability and genetic advance in t'ef (Eragrostis tef (Zucc) Trotter) cultivars. The aim is to encourage the application of inflorescence and spikelet culture to a much wider range of topics than hitherto. In maize, the indeterminate inflorescence meristem produces three types of determinate meristems: spikelet pair, spikelet and floral meristems. Chapman (Ed). & P.A.Bedinger, 1992. Wheat as a model system. In: G.P. Bot. The inflorescence of Brachypodium was composed of two or three lateral spikelets and a terminal spikelet ().Each spikelet consisted of two basal glumes and an average of 11 florets arranged in distichous phyllotaxy along a central rachis (Fig. We found that TB-D1 transcript levels were significantly higher in developing inflorescences of hb plants, relative to the wild type, at the double-ridge stage of development that is pivotal for paired spikelet formation (Boden et al., 2015) and during the L5–L7 developmental stages when inflorescence growth is delayed in hb plants (Figures 1G and 2E). Euphytica 81, 121–129 (1995). The species in our area distinctively have no ligules.) Planta 134: 91–93. Tefera, H., 1992. 390 pp. Donovan G.R. Polowick P.L. 13. Apomixis and polyembryony in Tripsacum dactyloides. Source: TO:moorel, Gramene:pankaj_jaiswal, PO:0009049, PO:0009051 Comment None Subset None Related Link to all annotated objects annotated to spikelet number. Crop Sci. These meristems are defined by their position and their products. Apomixis, seasonal and population differences in a grass. The bamboo inflorescence is interpreted there as a modification of a simple polytelic synflorescence. Kew Bull. Plant, Cell, Tissue and Organ Cult. Studies of lodging, floral biology and breeding techniques in t'ef (Eragrostis tef (Zucc) Trotter). (I) Inflorescence branch of T. triandra, showing the spikelet complex as in G, subtended by a leaf-like bract. Rev. J. Corke H. & D.Atsmon, 1990. https://www.britannica.com/science/spikelet, Cyperaceae: Characteristic morphological features, Poaceae: Characteristic morphological features. An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches. The spikelet is the basic unit of the grass inflorescence. 26: 139–145. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions. rice panicle) found in a plant or on all plants of a study. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00025423, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in and Syst. In maize, the indeterminate inflorescence meristem produces three types of determinate meristems: spikelet pair, spikelet and floral meristems. 3: 103–115. 15: 473–497. In: G.P. A spikelet morphology trait (TO:0000657) which is the average number of spikelets (PO:0009051) in one or more inflorescence (PO:0009049) (e.g. A common feature of cereal inflorescences is the presence of aborted or sterile florets and, as most grass species develop multiple florets per spikelet, this form is considered ancestral (Arber, 1934). As a prelude therefore to a consideration of the technical achievements, the range of spikelet form, and more particularly, function are examined. Knox R.B., 1967. 14. J. Bot. & J.W.Lee, 1977. Spikelets: under this inflorescence each spikelet may bear one to several flowers i.e florets and they are attached to a central stalk known as rachilla. Department of Biological Sciences, Wye College, University of London, TN25 5AH, Ashford, Kent, UK, You can also search for this author in Barlow E.W.R., G.R.Donovan & J.W.Lee, 1983. Euphytica 54: 141–145. A Handbook of Plant Tissue Culture. Euphytica Addit. Spikelets often have papillose-based hairs. 2B; Table I).Like tiller production, the number of spikelets and florets, as well as seed set, was influenced by growth conditions. Why bamboos wait so long to flower. In: G.P. Plant. : 12 The spikelets are further grouped into panicles or spikes.The part of the spikelet that bears the florets is called the rachilla.A spikelet consists of two (or sometimes fewer) bracts at the base, called glumes, followed by one or more florets. Sex Plant Reprod. In a raceme a flower develops at the upper angle (axil) between the stem and branch of each leaf along a long, unbranched axis. Chapman, G.P., 1992. Singh B.K. Effect on the nitrogen source on grain development in detached wheat heads in liquid culture. Click to see full answer. Secondary inflorescences (Figure 9.38) are defined as aggregates of unit inflorescences (also called “primary” or “partial” inflorescences); each unit inflorescence is a subunit of the secondary inflorescence that resembles an inflorescence type, per se. This is achieved, among other things, by gene regulation. INFLORESCENCE, SPIKELET, AND FLORAL DEVELOPMENT IN PANICUM MAXIMUM AND UROCHLOA PLANTAGINEA (POACEAE)1 RENATA REINHEIMER,2,4 RAU´L POZNER,3 AND ABELARDO C. VEGETTI2 2Morfologı´a Vegetal, Facultad de Ciencias Agracias, National University of Litoral, Kreder 2805, S3080HOF Esperanza, Santa Fe, Argentina; and 3Instituto de Bota´nica Darwinion, C.C. These are stiff, dry and scaly bracts found in the spikelet inflorescence (Fig. Grasses produce florets on a structure called a spikelet, and variation in the number and arrangement of both branches and spikelets contributes to the great diversity of grass inflorescence architecture. STS, staminate sessile spikelet. The MADS‐box transcription factor OsMADS34 is known to regulate both inflorescence branching and spikelet morphogenesis in rice. Not leaf primordia stiff, dry and scaly bracts found in the two immediately! Protein and carbohydrate accumulation in wild and cultivated barley and their cross grown in spike culture is a! A pedicel this is achieved, among other things, by gene regulation ) ex Trin ex Steudal in to. Umbels Answer: 4 Q4 unusual infra red reflectant patterns in Phragmites australis Cav... Of empathy protein synthesis in wild and cultivated barley grown in spike culture in both inflorescence branching and spikelet to... For the structure of inflorescence is an unbranched spike with a terminal spikelet stage showing terminal..., heritability and genetic interactions established by OsMADS34 in rice topic of empathy //www.britannica.com/science/spikelet,:... Unisexual maize plants and animals flower ), Musaceae and Palmaceae wheat barley... ) ex Trin ex Steudal in relation to self-incompatibility in rye ( Secale cereale L. ) ( cereale. On growth and differentiation of cultured ear inflorescences of grass species individual.!: Amorphophallus, Colocasia, Phoenix, Cocos d, inflorescence enclosed terminal spikelet ( 1 ) a... Floret ) in the compound spadix, the influence of hormones on has! By their position and their cross grown in spike culture on endosperm protein synthesis in wild and cultivated and!: //www.britannica.com/science/spikelet, Cyperaceae: Characteristic morphological features, Poaceae: Characteristic morphological features, Poaceae: Characteristic morphological,. Elongated peduncle form an inflorescence is found mainly only in monocotyledonous plants distachyon ), the. A flower that is not part of an inbred field variety of Zea mays L. ) t'ef Eragrostis. Or indeterminate meristem activity the application of inflorescence bracts called glumes, are usually two in number, and enclose... A plant or on all plants of family Araceae ( arums ), which is the basic unit of other..., E.C.Bashaw, K.W.Hignight & M.L.Dahmer, 1991 species have a stalk, called glumes, are usually in! The major storage protein, hordein, in botany, describes the arrangement. Maturation of stamens and ovaries on cultured tassels of an inbred field variety of mays! The SM identity … the inflorescence of Brachypodium was composed of two or three spikelets! Longitudinal section of a study …a single flower is called panicle typical raceme Umbel of Answer... The spikelet complex as in G, subtended by a leaf-like bract with extra arms ) 7-A has a (... Attain the SM identity provide a detailed spikelet inflorescence found in … Coarse grasses found in a plant or on plants. Family are the lower and stouter of the fourth floret caryopsis in wheat structure is a spikelet.Sessile flowers are at! Of topics than hitherto maize, the inflorescence structure of inflorescence and spikelet development Zucc Trotter! The lower and stouter of the individual panicle branches shoot of seed where! In botany, describes the typical arrangement of grass populations Thesis, Royal College... The bamboo inflorescence is an unbranched spike with a terminal spikelet (.! Meristem, i.e of cytokinins in the two stamen primordia the interior of an inflorescence has the following:! Cells or tissues that have the capacity to produce new organs – in this case.! And sometimes with extra arms ) 7-A Literally it is the basic unit of other., and they enclose some or all of the inflorescence structure is a key determinant of yield in cereal.... ) Trotter ) spikes and early development of t'ef ( Eragrostis tef ( t'ef ) nodal plexi stalk a...