Earlier exposures had been estimated based on the experimental reconstruction of past working conditions. Chrysotile carcinogenic potency for mesothelioma induction has been considered much lower compared with that of amosite and crocidolite (Hodgson and Darnton, 2000). The occupational history of cohort members was reconstructed from the information recorded by the mine personnel bureau, also kept at the Turin offices of the Italian State Archive. Chrysotile asbestos was extracted at this mine. 5 of 15 eaco vermiculite guideline january 2015 amphibole asbestos (health canada) actinolite/tremolite nonregulated amphibole. The Carcinogenicity of Chrysotile Asbestos—A Review W illiam J. NICHOLSON Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY, NY, USA Received December 23, 2000 and accepted January 17, 2001 Abstract: The world production of asbestos has been declining dramatically in recent years, particularly in … Evidence is incontrovertible that chrysotile asbestos is a potent cause of both lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma3_5~. •    The relevant primary scientific literature is systematically analysed in several international scientific agency reports. We are indebted with the Turin Section of the Italian State Archive, where all documents retrieved from the Balangero mines files are kept. Chrysotile white asbestos is the most common type used throughout the world. Meanwhile, the Public Prosecution Office of the Turin Court started a criminal trial following the death from asbestos-related diseases of former Amiantifera employees. We decided, therefore, to conduct a new mortality study of Amiantifera workers. They are filed at the Turin offices of the Italian State Archive, where they have been accessed by us. In the Balangero ore chrysotile and balangeroite are present, the latter representing 0.2–1% of fibres from the mine (Groppo et al., 2005). (, International Agency for Research on Cancer. (3) “asbestos” means the asbestiform varieties of chrysotile, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite, tremolite, and actinolite. Mine tailings were disposed of at dumping-sites. The use of non-asbestos products will not impact quality of life in emerging countries, as there are safe and effective alternatives that can be used by anyone. Based on our personal experience we considered appropriate a correction factor equal to 1/10 (wet/dry conditions). Some apologists for the continuing use of asbestos claim that because chrysotile fibers are not straight and sharp as with other forms of the mineral, it is somehow safer for human exposure and thus an acceptable risk. •    Yes. To put it simply, even brief exposure to asbestos can potentially lead to health risks like mesothelioma, lung cancer, pleural effusions, pleural plaques, and other asbestos diseases after a long latency period. The funding body had no role in study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. The cost of hiring asbestos removal professionals is often high because of the health risks and expensive equipment associated with the job. These estimates were personally discussed with the author by one of us (SS) and it was agreed that the range of variation had probably been underestimated, particularly for outdoor operations, so that the maximum and minimum values were likely to have been 50% higher or, respectively, lower than those provided in the original report. These fibres form two groups – serpentine and amphibole asbestos. In light of the devastating health effects that asbestos use—including chrysotile—causes, asbestos substitutes have been extensively researched over many decades. From the three sources mentioned above—simulated estimates before 1967, early surveys 1967–1970, and monitoring of fibre concentrations 1975–1989—average values were estimated by work-area and year, for work-areas and years with at least one measurement or simulated estimate. •    A major concern is that even where use is appropriately regulated, chrysotile-containing building products (e.g. Further five cases had declared to have been employed at the mining site by sub-contractors. Chrysotile asbestos was extracted at this mine. The World Health Organisation (WHO) considers asbestos as ‘one of the most important occupational carcinogens’ (WHO, 2014). The formerly Cave di San Vittore and later Amiantifera mine in Balangero was the most important asbestos mine in Western Europe with a peak production of 150 000 tonnes/year. Rain-corrected yearly estimates for maintenance operators were calculated similar to those of miners and other unconfined area workers, but the wet day coefficient was 1/5 instead of 1/10. For workers and working periods that could not be associated with a work-area we calculated year-specific average exposures based on the weighted average of work-area concentrations by year (weights: the proportion of workers employed by work-area and year). A new fact sheet about chrysotile asbestos has been published. •    There is no evidence that a safe threshold exists (or minimum exposure level) to prevent the adverse health effects of the use of asbestos. Results had been given as range of variation of asbestos fibre concentration by work-area and period. 100 C: Arsenic, metals, fibres and dusts, Mesothelioma in Quebec chrysotile miners and millers: epidemiology and aetiology, Excess of mesotheliomas after exposure to chrysotile in Balangero, Italy, An update of cancer mortality among chrysotile asbestos miners in Balangero, northern Italy, Mortality from cancer and other causes in the Balangero cohort of chrysotile asbestos miners, Mortality from cancer and other causes among Italian chrysotile asbestos miners, Pretura Circondariale di Torino, Sezione distaccata di Ciriè, Mortality of chrysotile asbestos workers at the Balangero Mine, Northern Italy, The experience of the Balangero chrysotile asbestos mine in Italy: health effects among workers mining and milling asbestos and the health experience of persons living nearby, Role of associated mineral fibres in chrysotile asbestos health effects: the case of balangeroite, Cancer mortality in Chinese chrysotile asbestos miners: exposure-response relationships. 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