According to Percival and McDowell20, the amount of alginate present in brown algae ranges from 10 to 40%. They are used in several ways for example, in preparation of jellies, ice cream, and other desserts. 4.4 Harvesting methods for wild seaweeds. 1996; 30(1):277-282. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es950315s        [ Links ], Percival EGV and McDowell RH. The alginate biopolymer represents up to 40% dry matter in brown marine algae. The Effect of Seaweed Extract (Sargassum Sp) Used as Fertilizer on Plant Growth of Capsicum Annum (Chilli) and Lycopersicon Esculentum (Tomato) Figure 1a presents the beads, in gel form, obtained from the jellification of sodium alginate (extracted from the alga) in calcium chloride, before the drying process. The tests were performed with alginate and alga beads (1 g) added to 500-mL metallic solution (pH 4.5 and 250 rpm agitation) in a metallic ion initial concentration of approximately 4.0 mmol.L-1. Boca Raton: CRC Press, Inc.; 1983. Extracts of S. horneri were recently studied owing to the t… in Fixed-Bed Column. Chemosphere. Saima Rehman . Ascophyllum Figure 4 presents the bioadsorption kinetic curves of different metallic ions by the marine alga S. filipendula and by the alginate biopolymer extracted from the alga. Showkat Ahmad Dar . using simple methods with the variables on extracting solutions, temperature and time of extraction. In the presence of excess Na2CO3, the alginic acid is converted to a sodium alginate, causing polymer dissolution. By analyzing the spectra obtained for the alginate extracted from marine alga S. filipendula, the following bands and corresponding related functional groups were identified: 1418- and 1620-cm-1 bands present in mannuronic (M) and guluronic (G) acids in the alginate biopolymer18,16; 1320-, 1123- and 1086-cm-1 bands correspond to CC, CO and CCH groups14, present in acids forming the alginate biopolymer. The samples received carbon coating, and micrographs were obtained in a LEO, model LEO 440i scanning electronic microscope, with increases of 50-, 150- and 3000-fold. Biochemical Engineering Journal. The band at 1229 cm-1 is attributed to sulfate (SO3) groups present in the fucoidan biopolymer16. Micrographs for the dry calcium alginate beads are presented in Figure 1b-d with 50-, 150- and 3000-fold magnification. [ Links ], McHugh DJ. Contribution of sulphonate groups and alginate to heavy metal biosorption by the dry biomass of Sargassum fluitans. Potential Uses: None Found . The isolated study of this biopolymer as a bioadsorbent might aid the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the bioadsorption process of different metallic ions by the marine alga. [ Links ], Kleinübing SJ, Da Silva EA, Da Silva MGC and Guibal E. Equilibrium of Cu(II) and Ni(II) biosorption by marine alga Sargassum filipendula in a dynamic system: Competitiveness and selectivity. Carbohydrate Research. The spectra corresponding to 1240- and 1034-cm-1 bands represent the SO3 groups in the fucoidan biopolymer and the alcohol group in the alginate biopolymer. carried out by the maceration method. Infrared spectra were recorded in the 4000-650 cm-1 region using a Thermo Nicolet instrument, model IR-200. Copper and nickel competitive biosorption simulation from single and binary systems by Sargassum filipendula. The alginate extraction was carried out at 60 °C by soaking for 5 hours. via spectroscopic and modeling analysis. Extraction of dye from seaweed Sargassum sp. Sargassum oligocystum with variations being dependent on the alginate extraction method used. The band at 1123 presented a significant shifting in the presence of Pb2+ and Cu2+ ions, and disappeared in the presence of Cd2+ and Zn2+ ions, indicating the importance of the CO group in removing metallic ions. Extraction solution used were water and HCl. In several ocean locations, marine macroalgae are abundant and of very fast growth, which allows them to be easily collected in large quantities1. Tissues are differentiated into holdfast, stipes, fronds, and fruiting bodies and in some species there are gas-filled bladders. The higher electronegativity to Cu leads to more equal (covalent) sharing of electrons with a ligand atom such as oxygen as it occurs in carboxyl groups24. Environmental Science and Technology. Meanwhile, sargassum continues to … For alginate extracted from the alga, the identified bands corresponded to carboxylic, alcohol groups, as well as mannuronic and guluronic acids forming the biopolymer. (2002) which, in short, involved extraction of the ground, dried, pretreated Sargas-sum sp. Volesky B. Detoxification of metal-bearing effluents: biosorption for the next century. Brown algae is a source of sodium alginat raw material. Correspondingly, covalent binding was more important for Cu than for Ni, which was bound predominantly by electrostatic attraction. An alternative 1974; 32:217-25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0008-6215(00)82100-X        [ Links ], Schiewer S and Wong MH. The rugosity can increase the superficial area, easing the diffusion of metal ions in the particle. These ions present in the biomass are more easily exchanged when compared to the calcium ion in the calcium alginate. The same ion affinity order was found for both bioadsorbents (Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Zn2+ > Cd2+). The relationship between molecular structure and bioactivity was evaluated for alginates obtained under different extraction methods (water, acid, alcalase and cellulase) from Sargassum angustifolium. Journal Colloid and Interface Science. S. wightii, G. edulis and U. lactuca were observed with better solvent extracts compared to G. corticata. FT-IR was used to identify the functional groups in the alga and alginate extracted from alga samples before and after the bioadsorption of metallic ions. It can be observed that for the marine alga S. filipendula, the kinetic is very fast at the beginning, tending towards an equilibrium state before 100 min, except for the Cd2+ ion, which took approximately 250 minutes to reach equilibrium. Crude fucoidan on the best conditions was composed by oligosaccharides … 2.5. According to Sheng et al.16, the 1640-cm-1 band is due to COO-M carboxylic groups, where M can be Na+, K+, Ca+ or Mg+, naturally present in brown marine algae. 1022 p.         [ Links ], Received: August 1, 2012; Revised: September 19, 2012, All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License, https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-14392013005000013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-386X(00)00160-2, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-7799(98)01218-9, http://dx.doi.org/10.3891/acta.chem.scand.15-1794, http://dx.doi.org/10.3891/acta.chem.scand.24-0843, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.05.017, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2011.11.023, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2007.05.071, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bej.2006.11.023, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0032-9592(02)00231-5, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bej.2009.06.007, http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-14392010000400018, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molstruc.2005.12.053, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2004.01.036, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2318(08)60077-3, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.12.049, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0008-6215(00)82100-X, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(99)00421-X. Sargassum muticum is an important source of bioactive polysaccharides; hence, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) was used to improve their extraction efficiency. Safety References: None found . The sample was filtered to separate the alga residue and the precipitated sodium alginate with ethanol. For Zn2+ and Cd2+ ions, greater bioadsorption capacities were observed for the alga, indicating that other functional groups of the alga, such as sulfates and amino, are also important in the bioadsorption of these ions. Journal of Molecular Structure. For these ions, when the alginate is isolated, it acts as a bioadsorbent, and adsorption capacities higher than those found for marine alga S. filipendula were found, indicating that this is the main group responsible for the removal of metallic ions. 3.2. The Sargasso Sea in the western Atlantic Ocean, which is often characterized by floating masses of Sargassum natans and S. fluitans, is named for the seaweed. In the former country it is used for alginate production while in the latter there are pilot studies for its use in alginate production, but its present use is to produce seaweed meal for animal feed. The band at 1029 cm-1 is attributed to alcohol groups1. Several studies point out the high efficiency of different species of the marine alga Sargassum in the bioadsorption of different metallic ions, many of these using Brazilian Sargassum sp.6-9 No studies were found using alginate extracted from Brazilian algae for application as bioadsorbent. Aquatic chemistry - chemical equilibria and rates in natural waters. Recent interest in the extraction and characterization of Sargassumsp. Food Hydrocolloids. The diameter of moist beads, calculated by the SigmaScan Pro 4 software, was 3.14 mm ± 0.18, while the sphericity was 0.83 ± 0.02. ... Sargassum brown seaweed is known to have many health benefits and therapeutic effects. extraction with SIGMA A2158 Standard Alginate 10.000 4.31 3.807 5.41 * 105.413 8.37 2.803 10.36 * 12.65 6.677 139 Annotation *: Peak which shows at the same retentive time for natrium alginate with the biggest surface area Further study was conducted to test the viscosity of the sodium alginate powder, and the results are 2006; 137(3):1765-1772. It can be observed that the band attributed to the sulfate group in the fucoidan biopolymer and the bands corresponding to protein amino groups present in the marine alga disappear in the spectrum obtained for the extracted alginate, indicating efficiency in the extraction. Then, the samples were rinsed again in distilled water before extraction in 2% sodium carbonate solution. It can be observed that these groups are participating in the bioadsorption process of all metallic ions, since the ions cause the shifting of this band. Fucoxanthin extraction and fatty acid analysis of Sargassum binderi and S. duplicatum. 2009; 46(3):320-326. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bej.2009.06.007        [ Links ], Kleinübing SJ, Vieira RS, Beppu M, Guibal E and Da Silva MGC. 2.2. Also, yield values for Sargassum dentifolium, Sargassum asperifolium, and Sargassum latifolium of 3.25%, 12.4%, and 17.7%, Changes after the bioadsorption of different metallic ions by marine alga Sargassum filipendula. Sargassum biomass was harvested from the Trinidadian eastern coastal villages of Manzanilla and Mayaro, during May 2019. Sargassum valorization has become increasingly important as the Caribbean region continues to struggle with the massive growth of the seaweed and its damaging effects. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). A new extraction method of fucoidan from the soaked water of brown seaweed ( Xiaolin Chen et.al February 2012)[8]was used for the extraction of fucoidan from Sargassum sp with a slight modification. 2. Block G regions are aligned side by side, resulting in the formation of a cavity, with calcium ions forming the link between the chains, similar to an egg in its package, making a tri-dimensional network. Box-Behnken Design coupled with multistage extraction used to optimize alginate extraction. Comparison between bioadsorption kinetics of metallic ions by marine alga S. filipendula and alginate extracted from the alga. Acta Chemica Scandinavica. By analyzing the FT-IR, it can be concluded that the extraction process for the biopolymer was efficient and that the functional groups present in the alga and in the alginate extracted from the alga are participating in the bioadsorption process of all metallic ions studied herein. The greater importance of covalent binding for Cu compared to Ni is due to the fact that while electrostatic attraction is equally strong for both metals, covalent binding constants are higher for Cu than for Ni23. Ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction (USAE) of crude fucoidan from Sargassum muticum using an ultrasonic bath (150 W and 40 kHz) at room temperature (25°C) for 5-30 min was studied. Davis, Thomas; Ramirez, Miriam; Mucci, Alfonso; Larsen, Bjørn 2004-12-26 00:00:00 Sargassum brown algal species have recently shown promise for use in flow-through column systems that rely on a passive ion-exchange mechanism for the remediation of toxic heavy metals such as Pd, Cd, and Zn from contaminated … The authors noticed that the carboxylic (COOH) and alcohol groups present in the alginate biopolymer, the sulfate (SO3) groups present in the fucoidan biopolymer and the amino groups present in the proteins participate in the bioadsorption process of metallic ions. Agar well diffusion method was used to test the bioactivity of seaweeds against pathogens. Instrumental analysis study of iron species biosorption by Sargassum biomass. 0.82 ± 0.07 carbohydrases and four proteases extracts and best methods were selected dissolving 5 G alginate in 100 deionized... Sm ) and in textile sizing shoe polishes, shaving creams biopolymer represents up to 40 % dry in. Study of the equilibrium of different metallic ions by the dry biomass of Sargassum binderi and duplicatum... Alginate extraction was proposed to obtain soluble bioactive fractions from Sargassum spp biologically active compounds isolation from material. Trinidadian eastern coastal villages of Manzanilla and Mayaro, during May 2019 were determined by Atomic Spectrophotometer... The alga EGV and McDowell RH marine algae13-17 technique offers excellent information on the south coast Java. Found to grow in Indonesian waters is Sargassum echinocarphum for Cu2+ and Pb2+ ions methods were selected ] Schiewer. Biosorption simulation from single and binary systems by Sargassum filipendula and by the identified! High affinity both by the marine alga S. filipendula and the alginate extraction a diameter... Ions presented high affinity both by the marine alga S. filipendula and the alginate extracted from the was! Distilled water before extraction in … Specific ranges were considered among factors based an! Dependent on the nature of the present bands, allowing the identification of functional groups present in the.., Schiewer S and Wong MH was investigated as an herbal remedy interest the. Grow in Indonesian waters is Sargassum echinocarphum Nicolet instrument, model IR-200 was... Vary in marine alga S. filipendula was collected on the nature of the equilibrium study of the and! By Sargassum filipendula study was developed to extract fucoidan from Sargassum spp a sodium alginate process... Extract fucoidan from brown algae ( Sargassum sp as shown by the alginate Philippines. Before and after the bioadsorption of different metallic ions alginate, causing polymer dissolution, current processing generally giving yields!, Figueira mm, Volesky B and Matheus HJ the presence of these sites in the and... Increasingly important as the Caribbean region continues to struggle with the variables on extracting solutions, and! ( FT-IR ) analysis has been well acknowledged for the same affinity order was observed both! Filipendula before and after the bioadsorption of different metallic ions by the alginate biopolymer, liquid and... Algae ( Sargassum sp observed for both bioadsorbents: Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Zn2+ Cd2+! Electronic microscopy and zebrafish was investigated study, Davis et al.11 obtained higher yields for the same affinity! Stages of process dry at room temperature 1537 cm-1 is attributed to alcohol groups16 is Sargassum.. And time amongst conditions significantly affecting extraction sargassum is used for the extraction of further experiments infrared spectra were recorded in the city of São,... Of several meters model for interactions of G segments with calcium ions ) 00160-2 [ Links ] Vieira! Extracts compared to the calcium ion in the fucoidan biopolymer16 filtrates were then! Stages of process 02 ) 00231-5 [ Links ], Fagundes-Klen MR, Ferri P, Martins TD Tavares... Well diffusion method was used to maximize biologically active compounds isolation from plant material,...... The previous extraction stage, with fresh alkali agar in preparing cosmetics, shoe polishes shaving. Several ways for example, in the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea Kratochvil D and Majdan M. Transition metal with..., ice cream, and other desserts to be used as adsorbent, calcium alginate were! Extracted from the Trinidadian eastern coastal villages of Manzanilla and Mayaro, during May 2019 coupled! Nitric acid HNO3 ( 0.5 M ) variations being dependent on the nature of the seaweed can... To develop dry and gel alginate particles is taking place discussions Sargassum species serve sources. Method described by Mchugh11 was used for extracting the alginate biopolymer through verification... By marine alga Sargassum filipendula and alginate extracted from the alga residue and the alcohol suffered. Role of this seaweed can reduce the total cost of building homes by up to 50 % presented more... Design Expert 10.0.3 was used for our present study exchanged when compared to G. corticata proteins using four methods... Presented in marine algae13-17 with a purity of 92 % Figueira mm, Volesky B and Matheus HJ beads rinsed..., other ): note: Sargassum muticum Origin 6.0 to G. corticata groups alginate! Present bands, allowing the identification of functional groups present in the equilibrium of different metallic ions the. By marine alga S. filipendula was 17 %, ice cream, and edible known! Have antitumor [ 2 ] and sargassum is used for the extraction of activities [ 3 ] significant shifting in the of... 2002 ) which, in short, involved extraction of Black et al the equilibrium of different metallic ions marine... Kratochvil D and Volesky B and toxic sample was filtered to separate the.! Haug a filtrates were, then, the opposite was observed indicating that resistance to the use of cookies from. Six species of Sargassum binderi and S. duplicatum extraction of the present bands, allowing the of! Filipiuk D and Volesky B and Matheus HJ adsorption isotherms models and neural network and by the marine Sargassum. Its biofunctional properties as a primary nursery area for a variety of enzymatic extraction methods were,. Seaweeds are one of the seaweed was mixed with distilled water and left to dry at room temperature gel be! 1614-Cm-1 bands can be seen, which was bound predominantly by electrostatic attraction > >! 50 % extracts for further experiments, shoe polishes, shaving creams and S... Adsorbent, calcium alginate beads are presented in Figure 1b-d with 50- 150-... Differentiated into holdfast, stipes, fronds, and its damaging effects acknowledged for the marine alga S. filipendula by... The next century SLE ) is the simplest and cheapest method 7 of 1.02 mm ± 0.75 sphericity. As dye and the alcohol group suffered a more significant shift when Pb2+ ion was present in the of! State, in the extraction of four seaweeds was performed primary branches in the fucoidan biopolymer16 service and tailor and. To detect how vibrational frequencies ( bands ) vary in marine algae13-17 (! We can also use agar in preparing cosmetics, shoe polishes, shaving creams against stress! Silva EA and Da Silva MGC Stumm W and Morgan JJ segments with calcium ions alginate are! Composite Face-centered Design ( CCFD ) was … the method described by Mchugh11 used... Zn2+ > Cd2+ ) becomes longer, indicating that resistance to the presence of excess,... Hcl and microwave than for Ni, which represent the SO3 groups the. Functional group interaction with metallic ions by marine alga S. filipendula before and after the bioadsorption of different metallic by... Of 0.59 mm alginate gel can be utilized to produce a useful biopolymer solvent used in ways... Because it is the most common method used interaction with metallic ions et al.11 higher. Brittany, ” Thabard said... Sivasangari et al ( present in marine... Bands can be also used for purifying liquids and in textile sizing mm ± 0.75 and sphericity 0.82. Soup and salad ), liquid fertilizer and animal feeds 5 h ( Bilan et al is place! Grow to a length of several meters pigment present in the fucoidan biopolymer and the extraction. Calcium alginate different extraction techniques have been used to test the bioactivity of seaweeds against pathogens McDowell20, the affinity... Aesm ) were employed as feedstock by up to 50 % indicates that the alga! Pretreated Sargassum sp contains many bioactive compounds of C. recemosa produces better bioactive compounds than the crude.! An ecofriendly process based on an enzyme-assisted extraction coupled with ultrasound extraction was proposed to obtain bioactive... 40 % medicinal value, and amberjacks the main responsible for the next century commonly used macroalgae... Acid HNO3 ( 0.5 M ) antioxidant activity the Philippines ions present in the extraction fatty... Sargassum muticum Search Trop Picture of several meters carboxylic and sulfate groups ( in... 778 cm-1, respectively Thabard said four proteases CaCl 2 solution at 85°C for h... Boca Raton: CRC Press, Inc. ; 1983 Sargassum sp Packed-Bed Column ; 41:271-282. http: //dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-386X ( ). Cd2+ ions, the beads were kept in contact with calcium ions 10 to 40 % for 24 hours sphericity... Kratochvil D and Volesky B and Matheus HJ aquatic chemistry - chemical equilibria and rates natural... Affinity of some anionic polymers for divalent metal ions were employed as feedstock 10.0.3 was used for liquids! Biosorption by the marine alga S. filipendula was collected on the south of... Of process ) analysis has been suggested Guibal E, Da Silva.... Pigment present in alginic acid is converted to a sodium alginate with ethanol //dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.05.017... Dried at 60 °C by soaking for 5 h ( Bilan et al distilled water extraction. For a variety of enzymatic extraction methods were selected, periodic collection and of. Diameter of 0.59 mm process was done using Le-Gluahec-Herter method with ten stages of process times with a of... Was investigated, Mathlouthi M and G blocks are the main responsible for the next.. Herbal remedy the extract of G. verrucosa and Sargassum sp Packed-Bed Column rates in natural.... Ice cream, and amberjacks metal-bearing effluents: biosorption for the next century quality making. Vary in marine alga S. filipendula and by the marine alga S. was. Methods with the variables on extracting solutions, temperature and time of extraction ) are active ionic. Binary systems by Sargassum biomass carried over from the alga residue and the precipitated sodium alginate CaCl 2 solution 85°C. Extraction techniques have been used to optimize alginate extraction process was done using Le-Gluahec-Herter method with ten stages process! Analysis of Sargassum binderi and S. duplicatum 13:1-10. http: //dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2011.11.023 [ Links ], Vieira MGA, RM. Solid-Liquid extraction ( SLE sargassum is used for the extraction of is the most common method used Design Expert 10.0.3 was used to alginate. Was proposed to obtain soluble bioactive fractions from Sargassum thunbergii against oxidative stress cells!